The Picture Exchange Communication System was developed by Dr Andrew S. Bondy and Lori Frost for parents, professionals and teachers of children with autism. In fact the system can be used to facilitate communication with persons with autism whatever their age. Easy to understand, the PECS can be adapted for most cases without any complex preparation or expensive materials. The system uses pictograms of objects, people or actions from the daily life of the autistic child, with a suitable text to accompany each image.
For further information : www.pecs.org.uk
Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) is an approach for autistic children developed by Professor Lovaas. It consists of methods based on scientific observations that are founded on the following premises :
- for many children, excesses and deficiencies relating to autism can be attributed to a learning block that could be overcome through intensive training
- this intensive training includes applied behavioural science techniques such as encouragement and positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement is one of the pillars of this method and is based on the principle that any new behaviour risks disappearing after a time if the subject’s attempts to attain the target are never rewarded
- early intervention (preferably before four years of age) and intensive behavioural intervention are components of an effective programme if the aim is full recovery
For further information : www.abaautisme.org
Early Start Denver Model (ESDM)
The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) has been developed for the intensive implementation of comprehensive early intervention with very young children from the age of 12 months.
The ESDM programme is based on current empirical knowledge about learning in very young children and the effects of autism on early development. Its aim is to reduce the severity of the symptoms of autism and to accelerate the rate of development in all areas, particularly in the cognitive, social-emotional and language domains. This objective is achieved by applying the ESDM programme, which uses a set of specific teaching procedures, on an individual basis and in collaboration with the child's parents.
Source: "Early intervention in autism - The Denver Model for young children" by Sally ROGERS and Geraldine DAWSON; DUNOD Paris, 2013.
For more Information: https://www.dunod.com/sites/default/files/atoms/files/9782100576531/Feuilletage.pdf
People suffering from pervasive developmental disorders often have difficulty in deciphering perspectives and social cues that govern exchanges in their social group. The method called « Social Stories » was created by therapist Carol Gray in 1991 to help autistic persons understand the rules of a game and has evolved in light of her clinical experience. It enables persons with autism to better « read » and interpret different rules and social situations.
For more information : www.thegraycenter.org